rugs.turkmens.net

carpets.turkmens.net


 

A movie about Turkmen carpet

 

TŘrkmen Haly Niyazi (tŘrkmenje)

 

Rugs and Carpets

Classifications and Definitions by:

"ASHGABAT RUG PLANT"

Carpet-weaving is one of the most ancient forms of Turkmen applied art. Each woman was taught this iraditional art from the early age. 
The magical beauty and longevity of Turkmen rugs come from the traditions of carpet-weaving, that reached high perfectness and artistic expressiveness of gel during the many centuries of its existense. 
It's hard to say when the Turkmen people began to weave their first rugs, too hard. We may just suppose that they weave them from the very ancient time.

Pile carpet-weaving is. a complicated and long process. Just skilis in accordance with rare artistic talent based on the ancient traditions make possible tlře creating of infinitely compticated and varied carpet patterns using the most primitive means of production. 
Carpet-weaver creates the whole composition and ornamentation of the rug only by means of her 'imagination and memory, combining patterns in a new interpretation. That's why the creative activity prevail in production of rugs.


The chief role in Turkmen rugs is played by ornamentation with its general components - main and supplementary "gels". The origin of ornamental carpet designs has realistic basis. Just reality was reflected in the carpet design: surrounding nature, tife and habits of Turkmen peopie. The weavers reflect their feelings and dreams, joy and grief, their hopes and wishes. If you look more attentive you'll see the history of origin of Turkmen people, tribe, region and nature of the weaver. Besides, the gels express heroism, courage arřd devotion to the Motherland. 

The gels of ancient tribes are kept in modern Turkmen rugs. Thanks to the Salor and Choudour rugs we have now the tribe gels of old Turkmen tribes that played the leading role in Turkmenia oF XI-XIV centuries. The Salor tribes are still consider to be initiators of Turkmen carpet-weaving. And in the end of the XIX century, when the Salors practically stop the carpet-weaving, Saryk and Tekke rugs with the very popular "Salor-gel" design appear on trade markets. The nature gave to Turkmens all necessary to make their carpets fine and durable.

The yarn for the production of rugs is gotten from the wool of Sarajin sheep. Having absorbed the heat and cold, dyes and perfumes oF the environment, this wool is in accordance with the world standards. 
The yarn was dyed by the vegetable dye-stuff, strictly in accordance with traditions. The natural dye-stuffs were used till the quarter of XIX century. And since the end of XIX century the synthetic aniline dyes became wide-spread.

The cotoring of Turkmen rugs is refined and reserved. The main color is red, begining from the bright holiday color and till the dark cherry and brown colors. IYs complemented by pieces of yellow, dark green, blue, dark blue and white colors. The center is framed by dark blue, dark brown and sometimes black colors. The white details of a gel accord with the whole coloring because of the natural color of the wool - warm brown color. The surface of rug is remarkable by the depth of a color, velvety and light twinkling. This twinkling is intensified of prolong using. 
Modern classification divides the Turkmen rugs into three groups:
These are: 

   I. Teke rugs, Akhal-Teke rugs, Pendi rugs. 
   II. Yomut rugs, Choudour rugs. 
   III, Beshir rug■, Kerki rugs, Kizylayak rugs. 

All these groups are differed from each other by decorations, patterns, coloring, density and height of a pile. In turn, each group unites the rugs ot various designs which have their own beauty.

The main merit of Turkmen rug is density, provided by skills of the carpet-weavers. They could tie from 180 to 400 knots to a square meter. 
There's one merit else: its dyes become more fine and the rug turns into a real masterpiece of art. By its technical fulfilment and aesthetic contents, the Turkmen rug may be concern to antiquariate.

Nevertheless, our main wealth - the Turkmen : women to whom a big role in revival of the Turkmen rug's fame belongs. Their hands create ihe real masterpieces of art, preserving and multiplicating tradititions of the ancient handicraft. They pass these traditions and secrets of ornamentation and dyes from one generation to another.

The fame of beauty and high quality of Turkmen rugs is known in tens of countries of all continents of our planet. This can be confirmed by numerous international awards at the International Exhibitions and Fairs in Paris and Montreal, Leipzig and Brussels. Among them - a Grand Prix, eight gold and one bronze medal. 
 


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Remarkable Akhal-Teke carpet with "Gushly-gul" design and with the
density of 1 148 000 knots per sq.meter.


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Akhal-Teke carpet with "Gushly-gul" design.


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Rug Gifts.


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Yomut carpet with "Gunchaly pendi" design.

 


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Yomut carpet with "Gabsa-gul" design.

 


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Yomut carpet with "Gabsa-gul" design on a fown background.


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Yomut carpet with "Zerbaf" design.

 


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Kerki carpet with "Onurga-gul" design.

 


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Kerki carpet with "Charkhy-pelek" design.


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Kerki carpet with "Onurga-gul" design.


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Beshir carpet with "Yilan-beshir" design.


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Teke chuval with "Aina gul" design.


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Akhal-Teke carpet with "Kejebe-gul" design.


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Chodour carpet with "Kyrk-shakh" design.


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Teke carpet with "Gushly-gul" design.


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Gizilayak carpet with "Derveze gul" design.


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Beshir carpet with "Guneshly" design.


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Beshir carpet with "Geraty" design.


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Yomut carpet with "Salir gul" design.


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Yomut carpet with "Guncha-gul" design.

 


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Rug namazlyk with "Ak gochak" design.


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Akhal-Teke carpet with "Pendi" design.


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Pendi carpet with "Pendi-gul" design.


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Yomut carpet with "Pyshbaga" design.


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Teke ensi with "Dogadjak" design.

 


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Yomut ensi with "Bovrek" design.


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Akhal-Teke white chuval with "Ak gochak" design.


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Akhal-Teke carpet with "Gushly-gul" design against a fawn background.


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Gizilayak carpet with "Dervaze gul" design.


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Yomut carpet with "Salir gul" design.


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Yomut carpet with "Dyrnak-gul" design.


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Beshir carpet with "Geraty" (yaprak) design.


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Rug Gifts.


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Kerki carpet with "Gully-gul" design.


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Choudour carpet with "Ortmen" design.




P H O T O E S

 


World Largest Carpet


 


 


Classifications and Definitions by Book:

"Turkmen folk art"
1990

How they made:



and finally goes to bazaar.

 

Gara ÷ŘŘn gapysyna tutmak Řšin "Ensi". Ashgabad. Halyšy O. Bayramdurdy evaš XXa. Birinji šńr egi. čŘn, natural renkler.

Gara ÷ŘŘ˝ gapysyna tutmak Řšin dokalan halyny˝ b÷legi."E˝si".
Pendiler, saryklar, XX a. ba■y. čŘ˝, hakyky renkler.

Í e dŘ■emek Řšin dokalan halyny˝ b÷legi.
Krasnovodsk  omutlar, 1940  .
čŘ˝, kimiki re˝kler.

Ovnuk ÷  esbaplaryny saklamak Řšin "Torba".
ăar■a˝ny, salyrlar. XX a. ba■y.
čŘ˝, gary■yk  re˝kler.

Ojak ba■yna dŘ■emek Řšin dokalan halyšany˝ b÷legi "Ojak ba■y".
ăar■a˝ny, salyrlar. XIX a. ba■y.
čŘ˝, hakyky renkler.

DŘ■ek Řšin "haly"
A■gabat, tekeler. 1960  .
čŘ˝, kimiki re˝kler.

Ovnuk ÷  esbaplaryny saklamak Řšin "Torba".
Merv. Tekeler. XIX a.
čŘ˝, Pagta  Řpek, hakyky re˝kler.

DŘ■emek Řšin dokalan halydan b÷lek "haly".
Ahal tekeler. XIX a.
Ortasy  Ř˝. hakyky re˝kler.

DŘ■eklik "haly".
Be■ir, ńrsarylar. 1960  .
čŘ˝, kimiki re˝kler.

DŘ■eklik halydan b÷lek "haly".
Krasnovodsk yomutlar. 1960  .
čŘ˝, kimiki re˝kler.

DŘ■eklik halydan b÷lek "haly".
Be■ir, ńrsarylar. 1970  .
čŘ˝, kimiki re˝kler.

DŘ■eklik "haly".
Krasnovodsk. Halyšy A. Mahmutova. 1916  .
čŘ˝, gary■yk  re˝kler.

DŘ■eklik halydan b÷lek "haly".
Burdalyk, Be■ir. XIX a. so˝y.
čŘ˝, hakyky re˝kler.

Egin-e■ik saklamak Řšin dokalan "šuval".
Kerki-Be■ir. ńrsarylar.  XIX a. so˝y.
čŘ˝,  Řpek, gary■yk re˝kler.

Ojak ba■y Řšin halyša.  "Ojak ba■y"
Kerki. Halaš. 1910-1915   .
čŘ˝, hakyky renkler.

Gapy bezegi Řšin "Gapylyk".
Krasnovodsk šiki■li,  omutlar.
XX a. birinji  arymy. čŘ˝, gary■yk re˝kler.

"Namazlyk" Krasnovodsk  omutlar.
XX a. ba■y.
čŘ˝, gary■yk re˝kler.

Gapy bezegi Řšin "Gapylyk".
Pendi, tekeler XX a. ba■y.
čŘ˝, Pagta, gary■yk re˝kler.

Ovnuk esbaplary saklamak Řšin "Torba".
ăar■a˝˝y, saragt, salyrlar. XIX a.
čŘ˝,  Řpek, hakyky re˝kler.

Ovnuk esbaplary saklamak Řšin "Torba".
Farab, ăovdurlar. XIX a. ba■y.
čŘ˝, hakyky re˝kler.

Ovnuk esbaplary saklamak Řšin "Torba".
ăar■a˝˝y, salyrlar. XIX a. so˝y.
čŘ˝, hakyky re˝kler.

Ovnuk esbaplary saklamak Řšin "Torba".
Demirgasyk, TŘrkmenistan, arabsrlar.
XIX a. ikinji yarymy.
čŘ˝, hakyky re˝kler.

"Torba"
Burdalyk-Be■ir, ńrsarylar. XIX a. ba■y.
čŘ˝, hakyky re˝kler.

Í  esbaplaryny saklamak Řšin "Torba".
Demirgazlyk. TŘrkmenistan, igdirler.
XX a. ba■y.
čŘ˝, Pagta , gary■yk re˝kler.

"Torba"
Kerki, ńrsarylar. XIX a. so˝y. XX a. ba■y.
čŘ˝, gary■yk re˝kler.

"Torba"
Kerki, ńrsarylar. XIX a. ikinci  arymy.
čŘ˝, hakyky re˝kler.

"Torba"
Burdalyk-Be■ir. XIX a. so˝y.
čŘ˝, gary■yk re˝kler.

"Torba"
Burdalyk-Be■ir, ńrsarylar. XX a. ba■y.
čŘ˝, gary■yk re˝kler.

Gapa asmak Řšin dokalan "e˝si"
Krasnovodsk , omutlar.
XIX a. so˝y.XX a. ba■y.
čŘ˝, hakyky re˝kler.

Í  esbaplary Řšin "Torba".
Be■ir. ńrsarylar.
XX a. ba■y.
čŘ˝, hakyky re˝kler.

Gapa asmak Řšin "Gapylyk".
GŘnbatar TŘrkmenistan,  omutlar. XIX a. 
čŘ˝, hakyky re˝kler.

Egin-e■ikleri saklamak Řšin "ăuval"
Demirgazyk, TŘrkmenistan igdirler.
XXa. ba■y.
čŘ˝, Pagta , gary■yk re˝kler.

Egin-e■ikleri saklamak Řšin "ăuval"
BŘzme in, Tekeler.
XXa. ba■y.
čŘ˝, gary■yk re˝kler.

Gara ÷ Ř˝, tŘsse šykar  erine dokalan
"Umur guman"
A■gabad, Tekeler. XX a. birinci šńr egi.
čŘ˝, Pagta , gary■yk re˝kler.

Egin-e■ikleri saklamak Řšin "ăuval"
A■gabad, Tekeler.
XIX a. so˝y. XXa. ba■y.
čŘ˝, Pagta , gary■yk re˝kler.

DŘ e bagy "Burunlyk".
Krasnovodsk,  omutlar.
we, Pendi, saryklar.
XIX a. so˝y. XXa. ba■y.
čŘ˝, gary■yk re˝kler.

Ovnuk esbaplary Řšin "Torba".
Farap, šovdurlar. XIX a. so˝y
čŘ˝, hakyky re˝kler.

"Torba"
Farap, šovdurlar. XX a. ba■y.
čŘ˝, gary■yk re˝kler.

"Torba"
Farap, šovdurlar. XIX a. so˝y
čŘ˝, hakyky re˝kler.

"Torba"
Gyzyl A ak-Kerki, , šovdurlar. XIX a. so˝y
čŘ˝, hakyky re˝kler.

Gapa tutmak Řšin "Gapylyk".
ăar■a˝˝y, salyrlar. XIX a. so˝y.
čŘ˝, hakyky re˝kler.

Gapa tutmak Řšin "E˝si".
Be■ir. ńrsarylar.
XIX a. so˝y.
čŘ˝, hakyky re˝kler.

Ovnuk esbaplary saklanmak Řšin "Torba".
Gyzyl A ak, ńrsarylar.
XIX a. so˝y.
čŘ˝, hakyky re˝kler.

Gara ÷ŘŘ˝ g÷š vagtynda uk ušlaryny da■amak Řšin "Uk ujy".
K÷nŘrgenš  omutlar.
XIX a. so˝y.
čŘ˝, gary■yk re˝kler.

"Uk ujy"
Krasnovodsk,  omutlar.
XX a. ba■y.
čŘ˝, gary■yk re˝kler.

Í de ikleri saklamak Řšin "Ikselik".
Krasnovodsk šiki■li,  omutlar.
XX a. birinji  arymy.
čŘ˝, gary■yk re˝kler.

Í de ikleri saklamak Řšin "Ikselik".
Krasnovodsk šiki■li,  omutlar.
XX a. birinji  arymy.
čŘ˝, gary■yk re˝kler.

Í de ikleri saklamak Řšin "Ikselik".
Krasnovodsk šiki■li,  omutlar.
XX a. birinji  arymy.
čŘ˝, gary■yk re˝kler.

Ovnut esbaplary saklamak Řšin "Torba".
Pendi saryklar.
XIX a. so˝y, XX a. ba■y.

Egin-e■ikleri saklamak Řšin "ăuval"
A■aky murgap, saryklar.
XIX a. birinji  arymy.
čŘ˝, Pagta ,  Řpek, hakyky re˝kler.

Ovnut esbaplary saklamak Řšin "Torba".
G÷k-depe, tekeler.
XX a. ba■y.
čŘ˝, hakyky re˝kler.

Ovnut esbaplary saklamak Řšin "Torba".
Ashabad, tekeler.
XIX a. so˝y.
čŘ˝, hakyky re˝kler.

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Classifications and Definitions by Book:

"T▄RKMEN HALYLARI"

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During many centures Turkmen people carefully having kept the technology of carpetmaking and its artistic style have brought it in perfect till our days. Talanted carpet-weavers reflecting their feelings and dreams, best wishes and hopes in the rugs have gotten high art of its design. That's why carpet-making is not a handicraft but emboded in itself unusual miracle of fine art.
Turkmen hand-knotted carpets are well-known all over the world and are exhibited in many famous museums of the world; Turkmen carpets have borrowed theirs coloures from nature. White colour is adopted from the moon's light, black colour- from dark night, yellow colour- from sunny rays (beams), green colour- from spring meadows and red colour is looked like blossoming poppied field. May be that's why from it is its fascinating beauty.
Turkmen carpets are made from pure national wool and according to theirs decorations, patterns, density and height of a pile they are devided into the follawing grups: akhalteke, teke, pendi, youmud, choudour, gyzylayak, beshir, kerki. At the same time all these carpets are united by stability and harmony of coloures, durable and beneficial for health yarn.
Depending on groups of carpets the density of hand-knotted carpets is from 200.000 to 400.000 knots per 1 sg.m. and its size is from 0,5 sg.m to 20 sg.m.. The paints of these carpets become more bright and fine after many years. The reason of it is that the fluffy ends oi knots split and smooth out and surface of the carpet begins to gleam.
The Turkmen carpets are testified by numerous international awards at the international exhibitions and fairs in Paris, Montreal, Leipzig and Brussels. Among them- a Grand Prix, eight gold and silver medals.

** TŘrkmen
K÷p asyrlary˝ dowamynda TŘrkmen halky haly dokamaklygy˝ usullaryny, onu˝ šeperšilik bezegirzi a awly saklap we has kńmille■dirip ■u gŘnlere  etiripdir. Ussat zenanlar halyny˝ nagy■laryna ÷Z mńhirlerini we isleg-arzuwlaryny si˝dirip, onun g÷llerini ■ekillendiri■i˝ yokary derejesine yetirmegi ba■arypdyrlar. Ůonu˝ Řšin hem halyšylyk senet dńl-de, ÷zŘnde gudrat jemleykn aja yp sungatdyr.
DŘnyńde me■hurlyk gazanan, belli muze leri˝ we sergi zallary˝ g÷rnŘkli eksponatlary bolup ÷z ornuny tapan TŘrrkmen el halylaryny˝ ÷wŘ■ginli re˝kleri tebigatdan alnypdyr. Olary˝ agy a y˝  agtysyndan, garasy gijńni˝ tŘmlŘginden, sarysy gŘnŘ˝ ,■÷hlesinden,  a■yly yazy˝  a lasyndan g÷šŘrilip, gyzyly gŘlńlekli meydana šalymda■dyr. Megerem, onu˝ jadyla jy owadanlygy hem ■ondandyr. Hazirki zaman TŘrkmen halylary sap yŘ˝den dokalyp, g÷llerine we nagy■laryna, šitimlerini˝ syklygyna we uzynlygyna g÷rń ahalteke, teke,  omut, šowdur, pendi, gyzyla ak, be■ir, kerki di en toparlardan ybaratdyr. Ůol bir wagtda, bu halylary re˝kleri˝ sazla■ygy we durnuklylygy, bezeglerini˝ g÷ze  akymlylygy,  Řplerini˝ berkligi we saglyk Řšin  ramlylygy birlefdir ńr. G÷rnŘ■lerine g÷rń TŘrkmen el halylaryny˝ syklygy her bir kwadrat metrde 200 mŘ˝den 400 mŘ˝e šenli šitime barabar bolup, ululygy 0,5 kwadrat metrden 20 kwadrat metre šenli dokal ar. Bu halylar  yllary˝ gešmegi bilen re˝k ašyp has g÷zelle■ ńrler. Munu˝ sebńbi, ulananda onu˝ tŘ jŘmek šitimlerini˝ ušlary b÷lŘn ńr we  ylman ar, netijede, halyny˝ yŘzi ÷wsŘp ba■la ar.
TŘrkmen gelin-gyzlaryny˝ doka an halylary Parisde we Monrealda, Le psigde we BrŘselde geširilen bŘtindŘnyń sergilerinde we  armarkalarynda Gran-Pri ba ragy, 8 altyn we 1 kŘmŘ■. madallary bilen sylaglandy.


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Turkmen carpets -- made from pure wool and well-known worldwide.

 

 

 

Niyazjan ve Farshe Torkaman



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"خوانش سمبل های گزیده فرش ترکمن"

نوشته:احمد خاتمی نیا/دانشکده میراث فرهنگی


 

 

Links and sellers:

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To see more;
Visit Dr. Farzad Marjani's private collection.

Dr. Farzad MARJANI, Civil Engineer, Ph.D.
Ankara - TURKEY